Diabetes Glossary: Terms You Should Know!

Diabetes or diabetes mellitus has been an emerging metabolic disorder the whole world is fighting with these days.

Various studies conducted on diabetes have shown the fact that lifestyle disorder seems to be the main cause of such a surge of diabetes invaded nowadays.

What Causes Diabetes And What Are The Symptoms?


Besides the main two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2, there are many other forms of diabetes such as LADA, MODY, Wolfram Syndrome, Alstrom Syndrome, Type 3 diabetes, steroid-induced diabetes, etc., to name a few.

Diabetes Glossary: Terms You Should Know?

Most of the forms of diabetes are genetically transported. Whereas type 2 diabetes is mostly the consequence of lifestyle disorders. Here are some of the most familiar diabetes glossaries. 


Antibodies can be defined as the proteins that are the integral segment of our immune system. Antibodies are necessary to fight the infection. 


Antigens are known as the foreign bodies that attack our bodies. Without these antigens, the body system becomes impaired to cope up with diseases. 


A group of antibodies that do work opposite to the antibodies are called autoantibodies. These autoantibodies attack the beta cells of those attacked by type 1 diabetes.

Autoimmune disorder

In the case of autoimmune disorder, the people’s immune system attacks itself by begetting various autoimmune diseases such as diabetes mellitus, thyroid, etc. In an autoimmune disorder, the body system begins to invade its tissues. 

Basal insulin (basal secretion)

All of us should all have a very insulin hormone in a little amount that is constantly in the blood; this is the basic emergence. People who have type 1 diabetes should take some type of insulin that reproduces basal secretion all day long; this is basal insulin.

Beta cells

Beta cells are that cells appear in the islets of Langerhans. In islets of Langerhans, there are four types of cells in which beta cells are a specified group. The beta cells produce and release insulin hormones which control diabetes. 

 Blood glucose level 

Blood glucose level is important for people who are keen to know their diabetes level. Blood glucose level is the measurement of the glucose level at a given time. 

Bolus secretion (bolus insulin)

Once we take meals, the pancreas, a part of the endocrine system, produces the appropriate amount of insulin hormone to harness the carbohydrates in the meal; That’s the bolus discharge. People who have type 1 diabetes mellitus should take some form of insulin that replicates bolus secretion, which is known as bolus insulin.


Carbohydrates are necessary for the body to provide energy to our body. Carbohydrate is considered very important as it is one of the three energy sources of the body. 

Diabetes mellitus

Most people are known of the term ‘Diabetes Mellitus’. It is nothing but the same as diabetes. The abbreviation of it is “DM”.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

This is considered a dreadful disease. It happens when there is no insulin in the body to help the body use the glucose stored by food for energy. Glucose is built up in the blood and the body turns into fat for energy. When the body breaks down fat, ketones are released, and when many of them build up in the blood, the blood becomes acidic. If diabetic ketoacidosis is not treated right away, it may lead anybody to coma and even to death.


Dialysis can be said as a very serious possible long-term effect of diabetes in which the kidney is a failure. When your kidneys don’t work well, they can’t clean the blood. Hence, Dialysis is the treatment for those people who comes up with kidney failure. It is a process that artificially purifies the blood.

Endocrine system

Diabetes is detected as an endocrine disorder as diabetes is procreated due to the inactivity of the endocrine system in the body, which controls the hormones of our body. 

Fasting blood glucose

It is a way or a testing process through which the diabetes level of a patient is diagnosed. In this test, the blood glucose level in the blood before consuming food is detected or diagnosed. 

Gestational diabetes

Diabetes that occurs in the female body during their pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. In this case, symptoms go away after giving birth, but the tendency of type 2 diabetes has prevailed later. 


Glucose is an essential energy for the body. But, to properly use it, an ample amount of insulin hormones should be there in the body.


Hyperglycemia is the condition in which a person’s body contains excess blood glucose. 


Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas so that body can utilize the glucose level properly. Lack of insulin in the body causes diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, people do not contain enough insulin, whereas, in type 21 diabetes, people become unable to use it. 

Macrovascular complications

Due to the poor control, the power of the blood glucose level in the body for a longer period, there might be serious damage in the blood vessels. Due to problems in the macrovascular system, the arteries can build up plaque in the arteries causing a heart attack or stroke. 


Nephropathy is a long-term complication in the kidney. Diabetes seems to be a possible cause of this disorder. The kidney damage could take place because of this.


It is the disorder of the nervous system of the body. Diabetes is considered the probable cause of neuropathy by which a person can completely lose his or her control over the whole nervous system. 

Oral glucose tolerance test

It is one of the ways by which diabetes in the body is detected. Based on this, the body glucose level in the bloodstream and the ability of insulin are judged. 


The pancreas is an organ in the internal body system. It is a part of our endocrine system. The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin hormones. Due to the ineffectively of the pancreas to produce the insulin hormone in the body, people get affected by diabetes. 


It is the pre-stage of diabetes that signifies the previous stage of diabetes. It indicates the person is not diabetic but has enough blood glucose level to be affected by diabetes later on. If a person can check at this level, diabetes can be prohibited. 


Protein is quite essential for our body. It is the source of energy in our body. There are two types of sources of protein; animal sources and non-animal sources. Animal sources of protein include meat, kinds of seafood, fish, egg, etc., while the non-animal sources include soya beans, nuts, etc.


It is a condition where the damage of the retina occurs. It can be a consequence of diabetes in people. The damage of the retina at a dangerous level can damage the eyesight of people. 


Diabetes glossary can be extended to a greater level as it contains a stack of terms that are directly or indirectly connected to diabetes mellitus. However, only the most important glossaries have been depicted in this article. There might be some other glossaries that can be added later on as the researches on diabetes mellitus and its impact on society is still going on. 

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