Obesity or severe weight gain is directly linked to many chronic diseases, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. There are several weight loss surgeries available that help people in different ways. People affected with type 2 diabetes are often found to be overweight, which becomes the main concern for them.
In type 2 diabetes, the surplus amount of weight present n a person’s body creates pressure on the pancreas causing an obstruction in producing insulin. It is a failure of the beta cells in the pancreas which causes resistance in the production of insulin. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease and increased body weight is the major cause of concern behind it.
Weight Loss Surgery As A Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes
There are a number of surgeries when it comes to weight loss. Some aim in increasing metabolism by eliminating the metabolic problem, while other focus on the control of the glycemic index. One such surgery is bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery aim in controlling the glycemic index in the body which is restored by an increased sensitivity for insulin and enforced caloric restriction This, in turn, helps in rising of insulin secretion, this curing type 2 diabetes to a large extent. In patients whose body mass index ( BMI) exceeds 35kg/m2, bariatric surgery is known to work to control type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among the two kinds of bariatric surgeries namely the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure and the Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding procedure, the Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass surgery is observed to work more effectively in controlling the glycemic index known as the normoglycemic control with the requirement of the diabetic medications.
However, the comparison between bariatric surgery and the popular antidiabetic therapies still continues keeping in mind their success rates. The traditional way of treating type 2 diabetes as suggested by doctors is by modification in the lifestyle of the affected patient. By reducing the food intake or taking the right amount of calories according to the existing bodyweight and the continuation of exercises. But these methods are not observed to be fruitful as they show results at a very slow rate. Patients intaking any kind of weight loss drugs are at risk of gaining that weight back. On the contrary, patients are observed to lose more weight after bariatric surgery. Though the different procedures f bariatric surgery affects people in different ways. In the case of type 2 diabetes, 87% of patients are observed to achieve an improved control on glucose secretion, and 78% of patients achieve normoglycemic control with the help of any kind of diabetic medication.
Bariatric surgeries are categorized into two major types based on their effect on the reversal of type 2 diabetes namely gastric restrictive procedures and intestinal bypass procedures.
Intestinal Bypass Procedures
Popular surgeries like the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion aim at restricting the calorie intake of the patient, by rerouting the intestine to a new pouch thus shortening the small intestine. But this procedure may also end up in the malfunctioning of the absorption of certain fats and nutrients. Thus patients opting for intestinal bypass procedures are observed to cure the condition of type 2 diabetes.
Gastric Restrictive Procedures
Gastric Restrictive Procedures include sleeve gastrectomy, vertical gastroplasty, and the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding targets in reducing the size of the stomach, which in turn creates satiety and restricts the intake of food. This kind of surgery is easier and takes lesser time to recover. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is seen to cause more recovery in the condition of type 2 diabetes than the conventional medications of type 2 diabetes. Patients are observed to lose up to 20% of their body weight after this surgical procedure.
Effect of Bariatric Surgeries on type 2 diabetes
Almost 80% of the patients opting for bariatric surgeries are observed to be responsive in reduction of the level of type 2 diabetes. Particularly the Roux-en-Y surgical procedure is observed to gain the most amount of response in curing type 2 diabetes without the help of any diabetic medications. Bariatric surgery also causes a reduction in the risk of heart diseases and other diseases related to a chronic case of obesity.